Taj Mahal

Taj Mahal is a perfect symmetrical building and an immense mausoleum of white marble. The building was built between 1631 and 1648 in Agra, by order of the Mughal emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his beloved wife Mumtaz Mahal. The Taj Mahal is located on the right bank of the Yamuna River in a vast Mughal garden, in Uttar Pradesh district in Agra. Taj Mahal is an admired masterpiece of the world’s heritage. It is the jewel of Muslim art in India; it is considered the greatest architectural achievement of Indo-Islamic architecture. Hence, the Taj Mahal has annual 4 million visitors, making it the most visited monument in whole India.

The building is a blend of solids and voids, concave and convex and light shadow. The arches and domes adds to the aesthetic aspect of the building. The color combination of lush green and reddish pathway with the blue sky over it reflects the monument’s tints and moods. The coordination of its colors is marked with the sense of Indian harmony. In accordance with the traditions of Islam, the monument has historical and Quranic inscriptions in Arabic, facilitating determining the chronology of Taj Mahal. Adding to its value, the Taj Mahal has been able to pass through history without suffering particular damage.


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Taj Mahal is a set of buildings, gardens and lakes. It includes two mosques; one of them is not used as it is not oriented towards Mecca. It also includes three Iranian-style gates, three red brick buildings, a central fountain and four bodies of water. The Taj Mahal is an architectural masterpiece, as its construction, masons, stone-cutters, carvers, painters, calligraphers, dome builders, inlayers and other artisans were requested from the whole empire, central Asia and Iran. Ustad-Ahmad Lahori was the main architect of Taj Mahal. The mausoleum was built with white marble inlaid with semi-precious stones, including crystal, jade, amethyst and turquoise. Its central dome is 240 feet, surrounded by four smaller domes and four slender towers standing at the corners.

Taj Mahal

The Taj Mahal is marked by some true innovations carried out by Shah Jahan’s planners and architects. One of the innovations is the placing of the tomb at one end of the garden instead of placing it in the exact centre, adding depth to the distant view of the monument. In addition, it is one of the best examples of raised tomb variety, as the tomb is raised on a square platform. Besides the tomb, the most impressive in Taj Mahal complex is the main gate, standing majestically in the centre of the southern wall of the forecourt. On the north front of the gate, there is a double arcade galleries. The monument’s garden is divided into four quarters by two main walkways; each quarter is further subdivided by the narrower cross-axial walkways.

Taj Mahal

Additionally, the building has a mosque and a guest house. Both the mosque and the guest house in the Taj Mahal complex are built of red sandstone unlike the marble tomb in the centre. The mosque as well as the guest house have a large platform over the terrace at their front. Besides, they both are identical structures, as they have massive prayer hall, consisting of three valuated bays arranged in a row with central dominant portal.

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