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Early Islamic Period in Egypt

Islamic Egypt History | Early Islam Period in Egypt

 

Early Islamic Period


A 4,000 army were sent into Egypt by the muslims Khalifa Omar under the commander Amr Ibn Al-Aas in 639, another 5,000 army joined in 640 and conquered the Byzantine army at Heliopolis battle.then Amr continued to Alexandria then, the Byzantine army surrendered to him by a treaty signed in Nov.941. A series of wars proceed in the following years from 941 - 946 lead to the regain of alexandria to Byzantine empire in 645 before the muslims re-takeovr authority in 946. Again in 654 another invasion was sent by Constans the second to regain alexandria, from that time no another trial was made to take over the possession of the country. 


Following the first surrender of Alexandria, Amr chose a new site to settle his men near the Byzantine Fortress of Babylon, the new settlement received the name of Fustat.. Both the ruins of this fort and the site of the mosque itself can still be visited today in Coptic Cairo (Old Cairo). Egypt has remained under the control of various Muslim governments up until the modern era. The Rashidun Caliphate gave way to the Umayyad Caliphate, which was based in Damascus.

 

Early Islamic Period in Egypt

 

Early Islamic Period


A 4,000 army were sent into Egypt by the muslims Khalifa Omar under the commander Amr Ibn Al-Aas in 639, another 5,000 army joined in 640 and conquered the Byzantine army at Heliopolis battle.then Amr continued to Alexandria then, the Byzantine army surrendered to him by a treaty signed in Nov.941. A series of wars proceed in the following years from 941 - 946 lead to the regain of alexandria to Byzantine empire in 645 before the muslims re-takeovr authority in 946. Again in 654 another invasion was sent by Constans the second to regain alexandria, from that time no another trial was made to take over the possession of the country. 


Following the first surrender of Alexandria, Amr chose a new site to settle his men near the Byzantine Fortress of Babylon, the new settlement received the name of Fustat.. Both the ruins of this fort and the site of the mosque itself can still be visited today in Coptic Cairo (Old Cairo). Egypt has remained under the control of various Muslim governments up until the modern era. The Rashidun Caliphate gave way to the Umayyad Caliphate, which was based in Damascus.

 

Early Islamic Period in Egypt

 

Umayyad period


The Umayyad Caliphate was one the most powerful islamic caliphates in the islamic regime through the different islamic dynasties. Thus, the leader of the state called the caliph which also was the son of the precious caliph.


The Umayyad Caliphate ruled the Islamic Empire from 661-750 CE. It succeeded the Rashidun Caliphate when Muawiyah I became Caliph after the First Muslim Civil War. Muawiyah I established his capital in the city of Damascus where the Umayyads would rule the Islamic Empire for nearly 100 years. The Umayyad Caliphate was brought to an end in 750 CE when the Abbasids took control. 


The Umayyad Caliphate take over the islamic Empire from 661-750 CE. it started when Muawiyah became Caliph after the first muslim civil war. Muawiyah established the capital in Damascus where they ruled the for nearly a century. It come to an end in 750 CE when the Abbasids took control.

Early Islamic Period in Egypt

 

Abbasids Period

 

In the 8th century the Abbasids Caliphate formed in Baghdad after a revolt against the Umayyads. In the 9th century the Fatimid Caliphate, originating in modern Tunisia, wrested control of Egypt from the Abbasids and established a new capital called Al-Qahirah from which modern Cairo takes its name. In 1171 AD the Fatimids gave way to the Ayyubid Caliphate, founded by the famous general of the Crusades, Salah Ad-Din.

Through all of these changes in government Egypt remained an important part of the Muslim world. As under Roman and Greek rule, the Nile Valley was of great economic importance as a producer of grain. In addition, under the Fatimid and Ayyubid Caliphates, Egypt and the capital, Cairo, were of great geographic and political importance. The beautiful buildings that still decorate Islamic Cairo are evidence of the wealth and influence that came to Cairo as the capital of the these important governments. During these centuries, the people of Egypt also changed with their government. Gradually Egyptians converted to Islam.
 
At times the tax burden on non-Muslims was very high, in contrast to the mild treatment of non-Muslims by the Rashiduns, making conversion a practical matter. The rate of conversion increased especially during the Crusades when the conflict between European Christians and the Muslim government increasingly politicized religion; however, it is difficult to say specifically when Islam overtook Christianity as the most common religion in Egypt.

After the break down of the Abbasids Period, other islamic took the power such as: Tulunid period, Second Abbasid period and Ikhsidid period, Fatimid period, Ayyubid period, Mamluk Egypt and Bahri dynasty.

 

Byzantine Rule

 

The arrival of Islam in Egypt was very well-time. Egypt had only recently been reclaimed by the Byzantine Empire after briefly being conquered by the Persian Sassanid Empire. Additionally, the Egyptian Coptic Christian majority was suffering persecution under their Byzantine governors due to a theological disagreement between the Coptic Church and the Byzantines.


The zeal of the Byzantines to stamp out this divergent theology in Egypt made it easy for the Egyptian Christians to accept the Muslim conquest, given that the Rashidun Caliphate asked only that non-Muslims in conquered lands pay a tax in return for exemption from military service in the Rashidun army.