The Old Kingdom of Ancient Egypt is the foundation upon which all of Egypt’s long and storied history has been built. It was during this period when people first began to produce the art and architecture that we still count among the most impressive ancient feats in history.
The Middle Kingdom only lasted from the 11th dynasty through the 13th dynasty and the building that took place was on a much more modest scale suggesting that the kingdom and its economy were not as strong as during the Old Kingdom period.
During the New Kingdom Egypt reached new heights of power and wealth. The territory ruled by the pharaohs expanded into new frontiers in the south, west, and east and the kings of Egypt built temples and palaces that were unrivaled by any in the world up until that point in history and well after it.
Hatshepsut was the daughter of the Pharaoh Tuthmosis I and Queen Ahmose, both of royal lineage. She was married to her own half-brother, Tuthmosis II, with whom she reigned for some 14 years. Realizing his sister-wife's ambitious nature, Tuthmosis II declared his son by the harem girl Isis to be his heir.
King Tutankhamoun was one of the famous kings of the 18th dynasty.It is said that king Tutankhamoun was the son of Akhenaton,but there is other theories mentioned that this pharaoh was the son of Amenhotp III, While his mother remains a mystery, she is believed by some historians to be Kiya.
Ramesses II, is one of the most famous figures in the history of Ancient Egypt. He was the third pharaoh of the 19th dynasty, ruling for 66 years from 1279 to 1213 BC during the New Kingdom Period.
The Ptolemies and the Greek aristocracy that settled in Egypt under their rule did not remain as popular as Alexander had been with the Egyptians. Later members of the Ptolemy line fought against frequent uprisings, importing soldiers from Greece and from Jewish communities in Palestine to help them rule.
Alexander the Great was the king of MacedonMacedon (336?323 BC) . He had been taught by the great philosopher Aristotle. He conquered Egypt and established the magnificent city Alexandria. Click here to know more about his story through Memphis Tours!
After conquering Egypt, Egypt has remained under the control of various Muslim governments up until the modern era. The Rashidun Caliphate gave way to the Umayyad Caliphate, which was based in Damascus.
Islam arrived in Egypt and the entire continent of Africa in 640 AD with General Amr Ibn Al-Aas of the Rashidun Islamic Caliphate. The religion was only a couple of decades old at the time and expanding quickly with the influence of the Rashidun Caliphate, which had been formed following the death of the Prophet Mohammed in 632 AD.
Saladin’s reputation in the West grew out of his leadership of the Muslim armies that opposed Richard I of England during the Third Crusade. Rather than becoming a hated figure in Europe, Saladin was admired for his noble and chivalrous behavior during the course of his campaigns.
The Mamluks formed the backbone of the Egyptian military during the Ayyubid Caliphate. They were soldiers recruited from areas in the Balkans and the Caucasus and indoctrinated as slave soldiers. Mamluks remained in power to govern Egypt until the 19th century when Muhammed Ali rose up to establish a hereditary dynasty.
Mohammad Ali is regarded as the father of modern Egypt. He founded the Khedivate of Egypt and Sudan in 1805, capitalizing on the disorder in Egypt that followed the French occupation (1798 to 1801), and his descendants ruled Egypt until the Free Officers’ Revolution in 1952.
Muhammad Ali tried to establish an independent kingdom in Egypt under his control and undertook massive modernization programs that transformed Egypt economically.