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History of the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan

Jordan is a land steeped in history. It has been home to some of humankind’s earliest settlements and villages, and relics of many of the world’s great civilizations can still be seen today. As the crossroads of the Middle East, the lands of Jordan and Palestine have served as a strategic nexus connecting Asia, Africa, and Europe. Thus, since the dawn of civilization, Jordan's geography has given it an important role to play as a conduit for trade and communications, connecting east and west, north and south. Jordan continues to play this role today.

Jordan is a country located in the Near East bordered by Palestine, Syria, Iraq, and Saudi Arabia, which was part of the Land of Canaan in ancient times. The country is named after the River Jordan, which runs between Jordan and Palestine. The word Jordan means "flow downwards". The region has a long history as an essential trade center for all great empires since the ancient world until now.
 

Evidence of Jordan's history dates as far back as 7,000 years before Christ. Humans have inhabited this land since the Paleolithic era. Three steady kingdoms united to rule the country at the end of the Bronze Age: Ammon, Moab and Edom. Later, Jordan has been a part of the Nabataean Kingdom, the Roman Empire, and the Ottoman Empirem until the Great Arab Revolt occurred against the Ottomans in 1916 during World War I. After the division of the Ottman Empire between France and England, Jordan had become a British colony. 


In 1920, Prince Abdullah bin Hussein arrived in the southern city of Maan and stayed there for four months, where he met with the Jordanian tribes to make the necessary arrangements to establish the Jordanian state, and then moved to Amman, where he arrived on March 2, 1921. Since the day when Prince Abdullah arrived in Amman, he started to establish the Jordanian state, he declared the establishment of Emirate of Jordan (Emirate of East Jordan) on March 30, 1921, and he chose Amman to be its capital.

The first Jordanian government was established in the east of Jordan on April 11, 1921. It was known as the Consultative Council, which started with the establishment of army (the Arab Army). It was collected from officers and soldiers who served in the Great Arab Revolutionary Army. The emirate remained under the British Mandate. The population of eastern Jordan in 1921 reached 400 thousand people.
 

In 1946, Jordan became officially an independent state, known as the Hashemite Kingdom of Transjordan. However, it was renamed to the Hashemite Kingdom of Jordan post the country took over the West Bank during the Arab–Israeli War of 1948. Jordan officially announced its official territory in 1988, and it was one of two Arab countries to sign the peace treaty with Israel in 1994. As well, Jordan has a great role in founding the Arab League and the Organisation of Islamic Co-operation. The sovereign state is a constitutional monarchy, but the king holds wide executive and legislative powers.


Jordan is considered as a country of "high human development" with an "upper middle income" economy. The Jordanian economy is one of the simplest economies in the region, mainly based on tourism. The country is a major tourist destination due its numerous historical sites and beautiful nature. In addition, it is attracting medical tourism due to the Dead sea and its mud that are full of benefits for the human body.