Alexandria History | Timeline of Alexandria History
Becoming governor of Egypt, Ptolemy succeeded in bringing Alexander's body to back Alexandria (Aelian, Varia Historia, 12.64). The primary Ptolemaic work in the city seems to have been the Heptastadion and the mainland quarters, although Cleomenes was principally responsible for oversight of Alexandria's continuous development. Inheriting the trade of the ruined Tyre, Alexandria grew to be larger than Carthage in less than a generation, becoming the center of the new commerce between Europe and the Arabian and Indian East. Only a century after its foundation, Alexandria became the largest city in the world and, centuries later, was second only to Rome. It became the major Greek city of Egypt, with an extraordinary combination of Greeks from several cities and backgrounds. In addition to being a centre of Hellenism, Alexandria was home to the world's largest Jewish community. It was here that the Greek translation of the Hebrew Bible, the Septuagint, was written. The early Ptolemies fostered the development of a temple of the Muses (whence the word Museum) into what was to become the great Library of Alexandria, the leading center of Hellenistic learning throughout the world. While the Ptolemies carefully maintained the ethnic distinction of the Greek, Jewish and Egyptian populations, these largest groups of the population created divisions and tensions beginning under the reign of Ptolemy Philopater who ruled from 221-204 BC.
The civil unrest evolving out of these tensions developed into civil warfare and the purges of Ptolemy VIII Physcon who reigned from 144-116 BC (Josephus, Antiquities 12.235,243; 13.267,268; 14.250). While Alexandria had been under Roman influence for over a hundred years, it was in 80 BC that it passed under Roman jurisdiction, in accordance with the will of Ptolemy Alexander. Civil war broke out between King Ptolemy XIII and his advisers, against the renowned Queen Cleopatra VII. Julius Caesar intervened in the civil war in 47 BC and captured the city. On August 1 in 30 BC Octavian, the future emperor Augustus, finally conquered Egypt. The name of the month was later changed to August to commemorate his victory. Much of the city of Alexandria was destroyed during the Kitos War in AD 115. This gave the emperor Hadrian an opportunity to rebuild the city through the work of his architect, Decriannus. Emperor Caracalla visited the city in AD 215 and, having been offended by some insulting satires directed at him by the citizens, he commanded his troops to put to death those youths capable of bearing arms. Alexandria was ravaged by a tsunami on 21 July 365 (365 Crete earthquake), . Seventeen hundred years later, this tragedy is still commemorated as a day of horror.
In the late 300's the persecution of pagans by newly Christianized Romans intensified, culminating in the destruction of all pagan temples in Alexandria by Patriarch Theophilus who was acting under the orders of Emperor Theodosius I. The city's Jewish quarters along with the Brucheum were desolate by 5th century. On the mainland, it appears that life revolved around the area of the Serapeum and Caesareum, both buildings becoming Christian churches. However, the Pharos and Heptastadium quarters remained populous and intact.  Alexandria fell to the Sassanid Persians in their conquest of 619 to be briefly recovered in 629 by Emperor Heraclius. In 641, after a fourteen-month siege, the city was captured by General Amr ibn al-As. It played a prominent part in Napoleon's military operations during his expedition to Egypt in 1798 until the French were routed by the British in a notable victory at the Battle of Alexandria on 21 March 1801. The subsequent siege of the town resulted in the fall of Alexandria to the British on 2 September 1801. The rebuilding and redevelopment of the city commenced around 1810 under Mohammed Ali, the Ottoman Governor of Egypt. By 1850, Alexandria had been restored to something of its former glory.  It was bombarded by British naval forces in July 1882, and occupied. In July of 1954 the city became the target of an Israeli bombing campaign which later became known as the Lavon Affair. An attempt to assassinate Gamal Abdel Nasser failed in Alexandria's Mansheyya Square in October of that same year.
Travel Experience Since 1955
Memphis Tours is one of the pioneers which have great impact on travel industry for more than 55 years of experience.
Personalized Travel Services
Whatever your travel dreams, together we can custom-design the perfect itinerary with highly personalized services just for you
We Speak Your Language
A multilingual website offers content in 8 different languages English, Spanish, Portuguese, French, Italian, German, Japanese and Chinese
Flexibility to Change
We know how important it is for travellers to have the flexibility to change their itinerary due to some reasons or force majeure
Your Safety and Security
A professional will accompany the guests to all of the places; they will never be left alone to fend for themselves
High Quality Service
We do believe honestly that quality should come first and quantity would come later and our main objective focused on (Quality is our Top Priority)
Customer Service 24/7
We offer Customer Support 24 hours a day, 7 days a week by phone and email for questions about our tours and services
Support Sustainable Tourism
We are attempting to make a low impact on the environment and local culture, while helping to generate future employment for local people
Secure Online Payment
Our website is protected by the world′s most secure online payment system VeriSign Secure
Secure Website by MacAfee
Memphis Tours website is a McAfee Secure site that helps keep you safe from identity theft, credit card fraud and spyware