The Agricultural Museum features a variety of displays about farming practices in Egypt from ancient times to the present day. Agriculture has played a major role in the Egyptian history and always affected the lives of Egyptians from the days of the pharaohs up to our modern time. Therefore, because of agriculture's ancient and continuing importance to Egyptian life, the Egyptian government decided in the 1930s to build an agriculture museum, which was built during the period of King Farouk to mainly serve two purposes. To provide agricultural and economic knowledge and to record the history of agriculture over a long period that extends from prehistoric to modern times. This new part of the overall Agriculture Museum will have two stories.
The first story will be devoted to implements for hunting and agriculture field and orchard crops, including some that date back seven thousand years. The second floor will have displays of animal wealth including exhibits of fossilized animals and birds that ancient Egyptians once caught, including ducks, geese, cranes and the ibis. The Cotton Museum presents exhibits and information about Egypt's most famous product. The grounds of the museum are huge, covering about 125 thousand square meters. The actual buildings occupy 20 thousand square meters. More than 15% of this space is occupied with gardens that contain a lot of different flowers and plants, including trees, bushes, rare plants, green areas and greenhouses, in addition to two pharaonic gardens. It also has a cinema hall, a lecture hall, a library, laboratories for reparation, maintenance, embalming, preserving and storing.
The museum of bread includes information about bread in Egypt since ancient times. It contains old, interesting pictures of different agriculture aspects such as pictures of peasants, waterfalls, and agriculture tools. All kinds of bread that Egyptians eat from different regions are displayed in the main hall of the museum. The second hall of this museum contains a display of different gadgets used in the baking of bread. A cleaning machine, used to filters the wheat and wash it before baking it is on display. Then, there is a display of various kinds of baking ovens both old and more modern. There are small models of workers baking bread as well, and all kinds of Egyptian wheat are displayed in this museum. Obviously, bread has played an important role in Egyptian life from the most ancient of times until the present. The Museum of Plant Wealth contains all kinds of field and orchard items. It consists of two sections. The first one is field crops, which includes samples of grain crops, oil-producing crops, leguminous crops, sugar crops and fiber crops with an emphasis on the most up-to-date scientific methods of increasing productivity. The second, orchard section includes samples of all kinds of fruit and vegetable, medicinal and aromatic plants and some types of wooden trees. Information for each fruit and vegetable is written under it to inform the viewer.
The hall also includes ways of enhancing the seeds and protection against insects and pests. And like all the other halls of the museum, different pictures of the Egyptian agriculture life are included on the walls. The Arab Hall is a specialized section for rural and Bedouin agriculture and trades. It was opened Sunday 30 of July 1961 during the rule of Gamal Abel Nasser. The Scientific Collection Hall includes scientific collections sorted according to scientific classification and partly sorted according to the history of agricultural elements and development. The area is in two floors. The ground floor is mainly associated with the farmer's life. Inside this hall, one will feel almost like one is inside the Egyptian country side. Statues are all over this hall displaying most of the Egyptian farm jobs like pottery and glass making. The upper floor includes displays of animal wealth, animal and poultry products and means of manufacturing them. Collections of embalmed local and migratory wild birds in their natural habitats are displayed as well as a collection of insects and rare luminous bugs (terflies).